"Величайшая польза, которую можно извлечь из жизни — потратить жизнь на дело, которое переживет нас"
Abstract. On the basis of the basic concept of the development of the coastal zone of Israel, the formation of a local marine complex of intellectual constructions with regard to the needs and conditions of the city of Ashdod has been considered.
Key words: Sea pool, beach, marina, surfing, intellectual dam, transport and logistics system, marine intellectual complex.
As one of the most important components of the measures, allowing the development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel in [1, 2], it was proposed to form a conceptual project of a multi-industrial complex based on a long-term foresight project. Within the framework of this project, taking into account the peculiarities of Ashdod, it is proposed to develop a local conceptual project on the arrangement of its coastal zone. Ashdod is the sixth largest city in Israel, stretching for 12 kilometers along the Mediterranean coast, with large, well-maintained beaches. The city is the largest port of Israel, not far from the port is a marina for yachts. The conceptual project should, first of all, be aimed at creating the most comfortable recreational and resort complex along its entire coast.
The coastal zone of Ashdod, as well as some other parts of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, has a great potential for attracting both Israelis and many tourists for recreation and rehabilitation. However, there are a number of factors that negatively affect the attractiveness of the coast and limit the possibilities for its development. These factors include:
1. The absence of breakwaters to reduce sea waves.
2. Sea waves wash away the coast and limit the possibilities of construction.
3. Dangerous currents and waves limit the possibility of recreation on the water.
4. Jellyfish, which appear in summer in the sea for almost a month, make swimming difficult.
5. Pollution of the water area due to the large crowding of people on the beaches.
6. Insufficient water temperature for swimming in winter.
All this reduces the efficiency of using the coastal zone of Ashdod to attract tourists, limiting the duration of the swimming season and the quality of rest.
Consider the possibility of improving the comfort of the coastal zone of Ashdod. Used breakwaters to protect urban beaches not only insufficiently extinguish the waves, but also lead to the fact that when a large number of floating the sea basins become polluted. And you need to consider the use of more advanced designs of protective structures. The use of structures consisting of a set of wave dampers can be considered as an effective means for protecting coastal areas from the sea waves. They allow to reduce sea waves and at the same time generate electricity by converting the energy of sea waves. Such structures can be fixed both on piles and on floating rafts and are not complex capital engineering structures. To their significant advantage can be attributed to the possibility of flow of sea water through such facilities. To increase the damping of sea waves up to ten or more times and to increase power generation, such wave-energy installations can be placed in several rows.
An active protective wave-damping and energy-generating structure, by supplying it with necessary sensors and an intelligent automatic control system that reacts to the magnitude of the waves, can be turned into an adaptive nonlinear waves-damping system, and thus always ensure a comfortable level of waves and a cleaner water area after it than when using traditional breakwaters.
At present, there are already developments of wave energy converters that can be used for such waves-damping and energy-generating structures. So, for these purposes wave energy converters of the company Eco Wave Power (EWP), Israel can be used . EWP converters receive wave energy through uniquely shaped floats that rise and fall as the waves move. Hydraulic pistons transform the movement of floats into fluid pressure, which is used to rotate an electric generator. Hydraulic accumulators are used to stabilize the pressure. The floats are attached with levers to any type of hydraulic structure, such as breakwaters, moorings, piers, as well as floating and stationary platforms. In fig. 1. depicts a section of the projected wave power plant with a capacity of 4.1 MW near the beach Tepalkates in Manzanillo, Mexico .
In the designed wave power plant will use the EWP Wave Clapper design. Wave Clapper has many advantages, among which are: three different storm protection mechanisms, simple and effective maintenance, corrosion protection, providing a float service life of at least 30 years, a shock waves protection mechanism, a lever adjustment mechanism, a float adjustment mechanism, an innovative energy control system and flexible modular structure.
For conditions of the internal seas, with an average of a small amount of wave energy, the company Gidroenergospetsstroy, Russia, has developed the Wave Power Hunter. On its basis, easily erected structures can be created to protect the coast and coastal engineering structures from being destroyed by sea waves and converting the energy of sea waves into electricity. Figure 2 presents the image of such a multifunctional marine protect complex placed along the coast , on which, in addition to wave dampers, solar and wind energy converters are installed.
On the Mediterranean Sea along the coast of Malta, Hydroenergospetsstroy plans to create a 750-meter long protection belt with WED "Wave hunter" that will reliably protect the water area from the waves and generate electricity with a installed power of 6 MW . A similar hydropower belt with a length of 1 km must be created on the Black Sea to protect and develop the coastal area of Evpatoria. For both projects, by the estimated of Hydroenergospetsstroy construction period is 3 years and the payback period for investment for Malta is 3 years, and for Evpatoria 6 years.
For the coast of Ashdod, with a length of 12 km of such an active protective structure, the estimate of the potential electric power produced will be 96 MW.
For floating breakwater, can use the “Double concrete U-Block” breakwaters from the FDN Group, the Netherlands. The length of the breakwater - 25.0 m, width - 10.0 m, height - 4.0 m. On the deck of the breakwater, you can install a tank for sea water, 25.0 m long, 10.0 m wide, 0.3 m high. Using a water tank will eliminate the surges of electricity produced. The tank can be filled by a group of floating hydraulic pumps of the “Searaser” type, placed in the sea before the breakwater, using periodic oscillations of the waves to pump seawater. The optimal distance between these energy converters is 10.0 - 15.0 m. At a wave height of 1.0 m, with each oscillation of the wave, one hydraulic pump pumps 0.5 m3 of water .
To convert the energy of the water flowing from the reservoir into electricity, a block with a hydro turbine and an electric generator can be installed on the opposite side of the breakwater. In the tank, you can additionally install submersible solar panels. With a tank area of 250 m2, the electric power of the solar panels will be 10 kW.
Concrete breakwaters “Double concrete U-Block” can also be used as a platform for installing EWP Wave Clapper converters. In fig. 3. presents a section of the dam with a breakwater «Double concrete U-Block» and converters Wave Clapper.
Issues related to the protection of the coast from sea waves and the use of sea wave energy, solar and wind energy were discussed at conferences held by the Institute of Integration and Professional Adaptation together with other organizations in Netanya in 2017 and 2018 [8,9]. As a result of such discussions, a group of Russian-speaking scientists and specialists was formed who analyze and develop proposals for the use of renewable energy sources for various technological systems and structures in the coastal waters of Israel, including to protect the coast from waves. And at the planned for October 31, 2019. in Netanya, the IInternational Scientific-Practical Conference "Problems of integrated sustainable development of the coastal zone" will address these issues in more detail. All those interested in these tasks are invited to participate in the conference. The conference will have 4 sections: Conceptual issues of a common maritime strategy and a strategy for the development of the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel; Architectural and construction, hydraulic structures, devices for damping sea waves, sources of renewable energy, artificial islands; Economy, ecology, resource saving, promising technologies, sustainable development; Health-improving, tourist and sociaal aspects of coastal zone development.
The above considered possibility of creating active coastal protect against sea waves may be the first fairly low-cost stage to improve the comfort of the coastal zone of Ashdod. At the next stage, can proceed to further improvement.
An example of increasing the comfort of the coastal zone is the San Alfonso del Mar artificial basin on the Pacific Ocean with a length of 1013 meters and an area of ??8 hectares . It was created by Crystal Lagoons Technology in Algarrobo, Chile. The water on the Chilean Pacific coast is cold and dangerous for swimming. Considering this, according to the project of engineer Fernando Fishman, an isolated lagoon-shaped swimming pool was built in which water from the ocean is collected and filtered and maintained in summer by 9 degrees higher than in the ocean. As a result, this large artificial lagoon has become a favorite vacation spot for both Chileans and tourists from all over the world. On the resort were built hotels, the guests who have the opportunity to swim and enjoy water sports in a safe and clean environment and warm waters.
Taking into account the natural features, the need to protect the coast of Ashdod and develop its resort and recreation complex as a recreation center, rehabilitation, sports and sea tourism and adhering to the concept proposed in [1.2] for the entire Mediterranean coast of Israel, can consider a local conceptual project complex of marine structures for the coastal zone of Ashdod.
The resort component of the complex can be based on the idea of the “sea river” considered in . It is formed along the entire coast and is separated from the sea by a dam protecting the water area of the “sea river” from the waves, a dangerous current and jellyfish. The “sea river” system with devices for controlling the flow of water and debris removal is divided into sections containing marine basins. These pools are part of the separated from three sides of the sea area adjacent to the beach.
The local project of a complex of marine structures, is schematically shown in fig. 4.
In fig. 4. is shown a complex hydraulic structure located along the coast of the city. It is an intellectual dam that protects the coast from coastal erosion and allows to create a transport and logistics system along the coast (2). This transport and logistics system can be part of, considered in [1,2] the transport and logistics system along the coast of Israel.
The dam fragment, in this case, on the basis of the “Double concrete U-Block” breakwater is shown in fig. 5.
In accordance with the proposed concept, the infrastructure of protective structures, consisting of floating breakwaters - wave energy converters, technical premises for electrical energy storage and maintenance personnel, is included in the intellectual dam. Placing these devices in an intellectual dam will facilitate operation, ensure timely maintenance, and reduce material consumption. Energy canopies are installed above the multi-lane highway passing along the overpass of the intellectual dam. On the roof of the canopies are solar panels. With an estimated trestle width of 50.0 m, the area for solar panels at 1.0 km of the trestle length will be 50,000 m2. The expected power of the array of solar panels will be 2 MW. Wave energy transducers are located under the bridge of the intellectual dam, where they will not interfere with small vessels. Taking into account the height of extreme waves, the overall height of the overpass above sea level must be at least 6.0 m. For passing ships and yachts to the port and marina, at the point of passage, the overall height of the overpass above sea level must be increased to ensure safe navigation. To protect the coast from waves higher than 6.0 m, which occur every 40-50 years, other protection devices can be provided, for example, can install a reinforced concrete rotary plate under the overpass, with a mechanism that allows the plate to rotate to protect the water area behind the intellectual dam during storms with extreme waves.
In the future, with the implementation of this foresight project, it will be possible to transfer the seaport in Ashdod to the territory adjacent to the intellectual dam from the sea, creating a large deep-water port there, which will expand its functionality. It is also possible to transfer the entire industrial infrastructure of the city to the artificial islands adjacent to the dam. All this will increase the comfort of living in Ashdod and expand its resort and recreational opportunities.
The complex of marine structures includes two sea basins with running water (4), 1500.0 m long and up to 250.0 m maximum width. Taking into account the characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea, the basic conceptual design [1,2] and the possibilities of new technology, the basins (4) will differ from the above basin . The basis for the design of the marine basin (4) can serve as in  a variant of a basin with flowing sea water, shown in Fig.6.
The flow of sea water in the basins (4) is formed from their left end in the device shown in Fig. 4 (5). The device includes a confuser located below sea level, which enhances and directs the flow of seawater, and participates in the creation of water pressure for marine basins. On the right side of the basins, water is treated through a cleaning device (6), which also collects and removes debris. The size of the basin allows you to swim on it in pleasure boats and water bikes. The seawater supply and heating systems will allow year-round swimming in the sea basin in clean and warm water. For the formation of flowing sea water in the pool, it is advisable to use the energy of sea waves. At the same time, enhanced cleaning of pools can be performed at night due to intensive pumping of seawater through it.
A hydrotechnical structure (1) can be implemented according to the type of self-regulating intellectual dam considered in . This dam along the sea will not be integral and the road (2) between the artificial islands (7) adjacent to the sea basins goes on the bridge on the piles. The road (2) near the pools passes in the tunnels (19) under the surface of artificial islands (7). On artificial islands (7), also as on the coast, hotels and sanatoriums (8) can be built, as well as disposed other tourist facilities and greenery planted. Under the surface of artificial islands (7), in addition to the tunnels for the road, parking lots for vehicles, office space and technological systems will be located.
Recreation areas on artificial islands (7) on the side of the sea basins have sandy beaches (9), the same as those on the sea basins on the side of the coast (10). This allows you to increase the possible area of ??beaches of the resort twice. And if we consider that from the side of the open sea recreation areas will have walking paths along the sea (11), places for entertainment, recreation and enjoying the healing sea air, fishing grounds (12), then the real space for sea recreation can increase three times.
On both sides of the sea basin, rescue stations operating in automatic mode of monitoring the water situation will be located on beaches 9 and 10, which will improve the safety of water recreation.
For sports surfing, it is desirable to have parts of the coast with a high wave height and the possibility of long-term maintenance of this state. For these purposes, it is possible to install in the chain of the complex, proposed in , wave energy concentrators (16), providing increases in wave height at a separate part for surfing (17). It is desirable in the design of wave energy concentrators to provide for the possibility of controlling the height of the waves. To increase the efficiency of the concentration of wave energy, it can occur in three-dimensional space, from two sides and from the bottom.
On the artificial islands (18) shown in Fig. 4, various energy systems, security provision services of coast, and other necessary services (20) that should be placed in the sea.
Energy supply of all technological needs of the systems of the complex can be autonomous due to the transformation of the energy of the sun, wind, thermal energy of the sea and sea waves. The energy of sea waves can be converted to other forms of energy. With enough electricity generated, it can be supplied to external customers.
The systems of the complex must operate automatically and adapt to all changes in the environment. At the same time, the structure, and control systems and controls of artificial islands should ensure their protection against tsunamis, due to adaptive regulation of the height of the island’s surface.
Considering the diversity and complexity of the functions performed by the technological systems of the complex, working at the level of intellectual technologies, such a multi-profile system can be considered as a marine intellectual complex (MIC). In this case, some decentralization in managing such spatially distributed components of the complex is appropriate, whose operation should take into account many influencing factors, which are often difficult to predict, and thus work under uncertainty. Based on this, such a MIC can be technologically considered as a kind of team of local systems with artificial intelligence (intelligent agents).
The creation of such a MIC will allow holidaymakers to swim safely in clean, flowing sea water all year round, and also improve the ecology of the sea and thus significantly increase the attractiveness the city Ashdod for tourists, including, which practicing water sports.
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